Founder of the Islamic faith, but also a military and political leader. Mohammed revised the social, economic and political life of a large area of the Middle East and North Africa, eliminating practices like female infanticide, and creating new rights to property and autonomy for women. He received and transmitted the Koran, the holy book of Islam. Muslims view him not as the creator of a new religion, but as the restorer of the original, uncorrupted monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham, and others. He was influential in setting up the just society that would be moral in the eyes of Allah.
Scientist who summarized all of the findings of all great scientists before him, such as Galileo, Copernicus, Kepler, and Tyco Brahe. The author of the revolutionary work, Principia, he is also credited with developing differential calculus. In addition, he wrote about optics and gravitation. Newton's "clockwork" metaphor of the universe influenced science for over 200 years. As the Master of the Mint (Secretary of Treasury) in England, he set in motion how capitalism was to operate at the national level.
Founder of Christianity, a worldwide religion that has influenced the world for over 2000 years. His philosophy of love and acceptance was radically new in a world that frequently feared God. Jesus made God approachable. "Love thy neighbor as yourself" was a moral philosophy that preached equal acceptance for all. Jesus is credited with addressing the hypocrisy that existed within the early Common Era Jewish leadership, where attention to the rule of law had often superceded intention.
Founder of Buddhism, an Eastern religion that focused on man's relationship with the self. He was born to a life of privilege and protection, but soon discovered that life also included suffering. He left his easy life, and tried to understand the nature of suffering and happiness. Through years of trial, he discovered that present-minded contemplation and sincere meditation were the keys to enlightenment. Buddha spent the reminder of his days sharing his discovery with followers and foes alike.